Vertebrate Paleontology: Study of vertebrate fossils, from primitive fishes to mammals.
Human Paleontology (Paleoanthropology): The study of prehistoric human and proto-human fossils.
A fossil normally preserves only a portion of the deceased organism, usually that portion that was partially mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates.
Fossils may also consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces (coprolites).
Many people think paleontology is the study of fossils. Paleontology is traditionally divided into various subdisciplines: Micropaleontology: Study of generally microscopic fossils, regardless of the group to which they belong.
Paleobotany: Study of fossil plants; traditionally includes the study of fossil algae and fungi in addition to land plants.
Paleoanthropologists found many stone tools associated with , and these tools are broadly similar to those found earlier on Flores and throughout the human evolutionary career (i.e., Lower Paleolithic tools in Asia or Oldowan tools in Africa).
are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
Although relative dating can work well in certain areas, several problems arise.
The Greeks consider the first Olympic Games as the beginning or 776 BC.
The Muslims count the Prophet’s departure from Mecca, or the Hegira, as their beginning at AD 662.
Taphonomy: Study of the processes of decay, preservation, and the formation of fossils in general.
Ichnology: Study of fossil tracks, trails, and footprints.